There are two ways of vegetative reproduction of clematis. In the first case, a new plant takes root until it is separated from the old bush (bush division, sprouting, layering), in the second case, the roots of the shoot or part of it develop after separation from the parent plant (cuttings, grafting).
Reproduction of clematis by dividing the bush
Usually, after 5-6 years of cultivation, both species and hybrid clematis are successfully propagated in this way. Old plants are divided in autumn 1 -1.5 months before the soil freezes and in spring before budding or at the beginning of growth.
It must be remembered that the delenki of old bushes do not take root well. Therefore, in advance, about a year in June, the base of the bush should be covered with humus so that young roots form on the shoots.
The bush should be carefully dug out, trying not to damage the roots, shaken off the ground or washed in water and divided into parts. But so that each has a shoot with one or more buds at the base and a developed root system. If necessary, I use a knife.
Sometimes it is very difficult to dig up an old bush entirely. In this case, I dig it out from one side and cut off part of the rhizome. I pour fresh, fertile soil into the resulting hole.
Next year I repeat this operation — only from the opposite side. From one bush in this way, you can get from 2 to 6 new plants that will bloom in the first year.
Reproduction of clematis by hoeing
If clematis are planted with deepening, it is quite simple to propagate them by hoeing. I carry out this operation in autumn or early summer, when the shoots reach at least 40 cm in height.
The clematis bush is hoed with fertile soil (10-12 cm). In the summer, during the growth, I fence with boards so that the water does not spread out to the sides and as the shoots grow, I pour the earth.
I cut off the rooted ones next spring. The number of new plants depends on the number of shoots.
Propagation of clematis by layering
For clematis I use several types of layering: vertical, horizontal, air. The most simple in execution are horizontal. They can be laid in the fall before the shelter or in the spring, at the end of May.
To do this, next to the bush, I dig a groove up to 1.5-2 m long and 5-10 cm deep. I carefully put the shoot into it and make sure that the top with well-developed buds remains on the surface, otherwise the shoot will not germinate.
Now he needs regular watering and loosening of the soil. Rooted shoots are separated in autumn or next spring.
I clean them from the ground, cut them into separate pieces between the nodes and plant them in a permanent place or grow them (depending on the degree of root development).
Propagation of clematis by cuttings
The most widespread method of reproduction of clematis is considered to be green cuttings. Its timing depends on the phase of plant development. Cuttings harvested during budding before flowering are the most viable.
At this time, in plants, natural biostimulants of rooting are in optimal concentration and are more active.
You can cuttings later: hybrid plants — until the beginning of August, small—flowered species - until mid-August. But the survival rate in this case is reduced.
Cuttings are best cut in cloudy weather or in the morning and evening hours to protect the shoots from dehydration. I cut them over the first or second real sheet.
It is not recommended to cut more than a third of the shoots from one bush at the same time. Parts of them for cutting are uneven. The most suitable for harvesting cuttings is the middle part of the shoot with well-developed vegetative buds.
The upper part of it, which usually has no buds, usually does not take root. The lower part of the shoot is usually lignified and takes root worse.
When propagating valuable varieties or using strongly woody shoots, the results will be better if the stalk is completely split vertically in the middle. It turns out two new ones.
Clematis cuttings with one node take root well. With a sharp knife, I make an oblique cut at a distance of 4-6 cm under the node and straight — above it by 2 cm. To reduce evaporation, you can shorten the large leaves by half.
To accelerate the rooting of cuttings, I treat them with growth regulators (heteroauxin, kornevin or sodium humate): I immerse them in solution for 10-12 hours for 1/3. After that, I rinse them with clean water and plant them in the cuttings.
As the latter, you can use greenhouses, greenhouses, tunnels and even pots for indoor plants. The best substrate for rooting is a mixture of sand and peat (1:1 or 1:2).
Cuttings take root better in diffused light. Therefore, in cultivation facilities I whiten the glass, and under the film I put a thin light fabric, for example, muslin, gauze or spandbond. A gasket made of such material protects the cuttings from overheating.
I plant them at a distance of 5-6 cm from each other and 10-12 cm between the rows. I bury the knot by 1 cm, which protects the kidneys from drying out.
The main conditions for the survival of clematis cuttings: uniform humidity of the substrate at a temperature of 18-22 degrees, and high humidity. I spray the plantings 2-3 times a day, and on hot days — 4-5 times.
I water it daily, and after a month — 1-2 times a week. They take root in 50-60 days. Until spring, I leave them in the cuttings, covering them with peat or sawdust for the winter, and a leaf on top.
In the spring, I plant them in ridges for growing. In autumn, I move the plants to a permanent place. The rootability of green clematis cuttings varies depending on the weather and the variety from 60 to 95%.
Small-flowered varieties and wild species can be propagated by lignified shoots, which are usually pruned and destroyed in autumn.
From them I cut cuttings 7-10 cm long with one node and treat them with a root formation stimulator. After that, I plant it in the cuttings.
For the winter, I fall asleep with peat and cover it with plastic wrap. In summer, I shade the planted cuttings and moisturize them regularly.
Shoots as they grow, I pinch over the second node, which stimulates more intensive root growth. The rooting capacity of lignified cuttings is about 60%.
Good results are obtained with spring cuttings. Broken out about the middle of May, the overgrown shoots are planted in a shady place, pinching the tops and covering with glass jars. By autumn, almost all cuttings have good roots.
Reproduction of clematis in water
Some growers root large-flowered clematis in the budding phase in water. Cuttings with one internode are taken. Water is poured into the vessel to such a level that their ends are in it.
The vessel itself is wrapped in light-proof paper and placed in a shaded warm place, constantly adding water to the initial level.
Root formation lasts 35-70 days. As soon as they reach a length of 3-5 cm, the cuttings are planted in a greenhouse or in a pot, providing constant and increased humidity. Otherwise, the dormant buds in the leaf axils dry up and the "seedlings" die.